South Africa’s economy remains uniquely dual and faces challenges of continued inequality, structural unemployment, and poverty. The income inequality is associated with the unequal land holding patterns. The duality in the agricultural sector shows in having a minority of the population controlling the well-developed commercial agricultural sector where applied research and improved farm management practices, businessdriven extension and advisory services result in high outputs, while the majority of the rural population earns their living using subsistence-oriented practices with minimal resources. South Africa has a complex legislative and policy framework regarding land, and there is a wide range of policies and bills currently under review. The sustainable land reform aligned to the Comprehensive Rural Development Programme is a key country priority, as well as sustainable natural resources management and food and nutrition security. South Africa’s Constitution strongly commits national institutions to respect, protect and strengthen the land rights of women and men, gender equity, equitable access to and distribution of land, and the rights of human rights defenders. Section 25 of the Constitution known as the ‘Property Clause’ extends and protects land and property rights, and allows for expropriation of land. Sections 25(5), (6), (7) and (9) guarantee (a) equitable access to land through redistribution; and (b) restitution to those whose rights were historically dispossessed because of racial discrimination.

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